Today, there is a steady trend to extract the maximum power from each computing unit of the data center. Users want to see more and more local disk storage inside data center nodes, and circulatory data transfer systems that combine cluster complexes with network speeds of 200 Gbit / s no longer seem surprising.
Central processing units and graphics accelerators are getting hotter every year. However, installing thermal packages designed for 240W discharge in dense server form factors is too risky due to high temperature. Today, due to inefficient heat dissipation, most data centers are less than half full of equipment.
A couple of years ago, it was thought that the maximum limit for air cooling was 600W per unit of Cabinet space. Today, using the most modern technologies, it is possible to create a small 1U computing " box " that consumes up to 1 KW. Theoretically, with the help of air, it is possible to divert up to 1.2 KW per unit. However, if the trend continues to increase the power of each individual computing unit, it will be necessary to provide cooling of at least 2 KW.
Due to the increased density of computing resources, next-generation scale information centers will be severely limited in power, cooling, space, and maintenance costs. In addition, the need to comply with regulatory regulations on energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions will have a major impact on the industry.
Already this year, processors with a power of up to 300 or even 350 W will appear on the market, requiring huge radiators and fans to cool down. By 2022, we can expect offers for capacities up to 500 watts per socket. New processors will require twice as much cooling power. Technically, this means a 4-fold increase in fan speed and an eight-fold increase in volume.
If the air cooling system breaks down, the equipment will have to work out sky-high numbers. For example, in a system with 5 fans, if one fails, the remaining four should produce 25% more power. Therefore, the rotation speed should increase by 50%, and the volume should double.